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The word 'seed' is often used in the Bible in connection with conception and offspring.
  • Greek: σπέρμα (sperma)
  • Hebrew: זָֽרַע (zā · ra')
The term 'seed' contains the thought of something that is sown in order to produce the contents of the seed. It is an integral part of the reproduction and existence of a human as a descendant of the family lineage formed by the parents - father and mother, with the “seed” being borne by the father (Leviticus 15: 16,18). The Bible writers used the word in the context of conception and birth to refer to human offspring that originated from the father's seed.
This same word was used in reference to the vegetable 'seed' which contains the germ of a future plant (see (Hebrew): Genesis 1:29; (Greek): 1 Cor. 15:38). In the plant world, in certain species the wind or insect transport the seed from the stamen to the stigma, which eventually produces the fruit. Other plants have seeds that reach the soil where they sprout. Just as the soil may be unfertile or barren, so in the Bible speaks about the barren womb of a woman, implying that she was not the source of the seed, but merely the recipient on whom it depended whether or not the 'seed' would be received (Proverbs 30:16). In this sense, the woman contained the material substance for the creation of the fetus, while the man was the source of the active life force, contained in the 'semen'. That is why the term 'son of man' (a man’s son) could not be used for Adam who did not arise from a man. However, that is why Jesus often used that very term for himself, which indicates that he was...
  • created by a man and man's seed.
In the flora and fauna there are several natural methods of fertilization by the seed, while in humans there is only one natural way. Of course, there is artificial insemination, developed by the scientists. God is above any scientist, and so it is possible that he was behind the fertilization by which he brought Joshua (Jesus) into existence, as he was behind the conception of Isaac, Samson, Solomon, and John the Baptist. However, the problem arises when, according to the interpretation of many theologians, we exclude the male 'seed' from the fertilization, that would make Jesus be the son of Joseph and of David.
Among early Christians there were two views on Jesus' creation:
  1. he was conceived by her father Joseph (natural)
  2. he was conceived by the Holy Spirit (supernatural)
The first view throughout its existence has been that of Jewish Christians since the very foundation of the Christian assembly in Jerusalem when they were called the Nazarenes. After their escape from Jerusalem they were known as the Ebionites (poor). This name is associated with the prophecy of Zephaniah (3: 8-12) who wrote about the day when God would shake up kingdoms and nations. In that day he will bring back scattered Israelites from all nations. He will reject those who have exalted themselves, and will leave those who are small and humble, as it says:
“And I will leave in you a poor and needy people, and they will trust in the name of the LORD.” (Zephaniah 3:12)
From the very beginning, they positioned themselves as 'poor' who enrich others (see 2 Corinthians 6:10; James 2: 5). Their belief in Jesus as a man was later suppressed by the story of the supernatural conception, which was eventually accepted by non-Jewish Christians. Eusebius claimed that some of the Ebionites of his time also adhered to the latter view (See "Eusebius”, 'Ebionites', History of the Church (Croatian)). Since then, most Christians, under pressure from their religious teachers, do not consider Joseph the originator of Jesus' existence. Hence this point of view remained to this day completely contrary to the original one.
But when we take a closer look, these two points of view need not be contradictory, since they were obviously not contrary to some Jewish Christians (Ebionites). We can connect them with the question - could God, through the holy spirit, (like the wind that transfers seed from the stamens to the stigma) in accordance with the law of inheritance of the family lineage and name, transfer Joseph's seed into the womb of his fiancee? This question is in place because the egg cell of a woman with a 'xx' sex chromosome could not self-create a male (“xy”) child but only
  • an identical female child (clone).
How then did the 'y' chromosome from the male 'seed' get into the womb and cause the conception of the male child? And more importantly, whose 'chromosome' was that, containing genetic material for the formation of the male body?
Although we know that the body of a child is derived from the genes of both parents, which contain the genetic record of all previous ancestors, and that it is related to the blood of both parents, what is important in this case is that the Hebrews registered the inheritance according to the male 'seed' which includes the blood relation, not by the woman's blood relation to her father and forefathers. This was governed by God's laws and commandments. Each time the term 'seed' was used, it meant the father of the child, not the mother. This is why Hebrew writers in the genealogy wrote, inter alia:
 “Abraham begot Isaac…” (Genesis 25:19)
In this manner of expression, they said that Abraham caused the birth of Isaac with his seed. They believed that children came into the world by man through woman. They had the knowledge that God, through his creative spirit, could close, open and revive the womb, and thus through the 'seed' of man, participate in the creation and formation of those offspring whom he had predetermined as his servants. All these descendants were to come from Abraham, Judah, David and Solomon's 'seed'. According to this image, Joshua (Jesus) 'son of David' could have been created only by his father Joseph, that is, by David's 'seed' transmitted only by his male descendants. God said to David,
“And when your days are fulfilled, and you commit with your fathers, I will raise up your offspring ('zera') after you, who will be born of (from) your flesh, and will establish his kingdom.” (2 Samuel 7: 12)
 “When your days are over, and you have rested with your fathers, I will raise up your seed ('zera') after you, which will come out of your womb (from your body) and I will establish his kingdom.” (2 Samuel 7:12)
I took an example of two translations because this verse mentions the word 'seed' (zera) which some translators translate with 'offspring' or 'son'.
  • seed ~ offspring (son)
These are two different words but interrelated because the son contains within himself the germ of his offspring and is therefore considered to be 'seed' or carrier of 'seed'.
As we can see from the verse above, God promised David that the "seed" (male offspring) and the heir to his kingdom would be raised from his "body" or from his "womb", from which "seed" ("zera"; "sperma") emerges. (see Acts 2:30). When we refer to Jesus as his promised offspring ('seed'), then the expression 'from your flesh' meant: 'from the seed of your son' (not your daughter) I will raise your 'offspring', which means that Jesus should have been born of male (Joseph's) seed by which the family line is extended. So the angel addressed Joseph, calling him:
“Son of David” (Matthew 1:20)
From Joseph 'son of David' came Jesus, 'son of David'. That conclusion  is drawn from the part of the sentence in which God says to David:
“I will raise your seed
“I will raise up (your offspring, your son)”
In order for Jesus to be the 'seed', and the bearer of the seed of David, he had to come from his father's 'seed' and not from his mother's body, which does not have the male chromosome 'y' in it. Namely, the 'seed' with the 'y' chromosome is transmitted from father to son through the mother. If Mary did not conceive Jesus of that seed, then God could not legally or through the flesh raise David's 'seed' (son, offspring). In this case, David is the bearer of that royal 'seed' that was passed on to his son Solomon as a male offspring that originated from the seed of David. This 'seed' was to be transmitted by his male descendants until the birth of Jesus, the last son of David as king of the law, anointed and made Lord by God. Although David had more sons, the royal lineage ran only through Solomon and his 'seed'. Accordingly, David's 'seed' was transmitted
  • through Solomon’s lineage
  • by male offspring
To determine how Jesus came into existence as the 'son of David', we need to consider two principles related to the problems that arise if these principles are ignored. Those are:
  • the principle of inheritance
  • the principle of the spoken word